# ESPnet2¶

We are planning a super major update, called ESPnet2. The developing status is still under construction yet, so please be very careful to use with understanding following cautions:

• There might be fatal bugs related to essential parts.

• We haven’t achieved comparable results to espnet1 on each task yet.

## Main changing from ESPnet1¶

• Chainer free

• The development of Chainer is stopped at v7: https://chainer.org/announcement/2019/12/05/released-v7.html

• Kaldi free

• It’s not mandatory to compile Kaldi.

• If you find some recipes requiring Kaldi mandatory, please report it. It should be dealt with as a bug in ESPnet2.

• We still support the features made by Kaldi optionally.

• We still follow Kaldi style. i.e. depending on utils/ of Kaldi.

• On the fly feature extraction & text preprocessing for training

• You don’t need to create the feature file before training, but just input wave data directly.

• We support both raw wave input and extracted features.

• The preprocessing for text, tokenization to characters, or sentencepieces, can be also applied during training.

• Support self-supervised learning representations from s3prl

• Discarding the JSON format describing the training corpus.

• Why do we discard the JSON format? Because a dict object generated from a large JSON file requires much memory and it also takes much time to parse such a large JSON file.

• Support distributed data-parallel training (Not enough tested)

• Single node multi GPU training with DistributedDataParallel is also supported.

## Recipes using ESPnet2¶

You can find the new recipes in egs2:

espnet/  # Python modules of epsnet1
espnet2/ # Python modules of epsnet2
egs/     # espnet1 recipes
egs2/    # espnet2 recipes

The usage of recipes is almost the same as that of ESPnet1.

1. Change directory to the base directory

# e.g.
cd egs2/an4/asr1/

an4 is a tiny corpus and can be freely obtained, so it might be suitable for this tutorial. You can perform any other recipes as the same way. e.g. wsj, librispeech, and etc.

Keep in mind that all scripts should be ran at the level of egs2/*/{asr1,tts1,...}.

# Doesn't work
cd egs2/an4/
./asr1/run.sh
./asr1/scripts/<some-script>.sh

# Doesn't work
cd egs2/an4/asr1/local/
./data.sh

# Work
cd egs2/an4/asr1
./run.sh
./scripts/<some-script>.sh

2. Change the configuration Describing the directory structure as follows:

egs2/an4/asr1/
- conf/      # Configuration files for training, inference, etc.
- scripts/   # Bash utilities of espnet2
- pyscripts/ # Python utilities of espnet2
- steps/     # From Kaldi utilities
- utils/     # From Kaldi utilities
- db.sh      # The directory path of each corpora
- path.sh    # Setup script for environment variables
- cmd.sh     # Configuration for your backend of job scheduler
- run.sh     # Entry point
- asr.sh     # Invoked by run.sh

• You need to modify db.sh for specifying your corpus before executing run.sh. For example, when you touch the recipe of egs2/wsj, you need to change the paths of WSJ0 and WSJ1 in db.sh.

• path.sh is used to set up the environment for run.sh. Note that the Python interpreter used for ESPnet is not the current Python of your terminal, but it’s the Python which was installed at tools/. Thus you need to source path.sh to use this Python.

. path.sh
python

• cmd.sh is used for specifying the backend of the job scheduler. If you don’t have such a system in your local machine environment, you don’t need to change anything about this file. See Using Job scheduling system

3. Run run.sh

./run.sh

run.sh is an example script, which we often call as “recipe”, to run all stages related to DNN experiments; data-preparation, training, and evaluation.

## See training status¶

### Show the log file¶

% tail -f exp/*_train_*/train.log
[host] 2020-04-05 16:34:54,278 (trainer:192) INFO: 2/40epoch started. Estimated time to finish: 7 minutes and 58.63 seconds
[host] 2020-04-05 16:34:56,315 (trainer:453) INFO: 2epoch:train:1-10batch: iter_time=0.006, forward_time=0.076, loss=50.873, los
s_att=35.801, loss_ctc=65.945, acc=0.471, backward_time=0.072, optim_step_time=0.006, lr_0=1.000, train_time=0.203
[host] 2020-04-05 16:34:58,046 (trainer:453) INFO: 2epoch:train:11-20batch: iter_time=4.280e-05, forward_time=0.068, loss=44.369
, loss_att=28.776, loss_ctc=59.962, acc=0.506, backward_time=0.055, optim_step_time=0.006, lr_0=1.000, train_time=0.173

### Show the training status in a image file¶

# Accuracy plot
# (eog is Eye of GNOME Image Viewer)
eog exp/*_train_*/images/acc.img
# Attention plot
eog exp/*_train_*/att_ws/<sample-id>/<param-name>.img

### Use tensorboard¶

tensorboard --logdir exp/*_train_*/tensorboard/

# Instruction for run.sh¶

## How to parse command-line arguments in shell scripts?¶

All shell scripts in espnet/espnet2 depend on utils/parse_options.sh to parase command line arguments.

e.g. If the script has ngpu option

#!/usr/bin/env bash
# run.sh
ngpu=1
. utils/parse_options.sh
echo ${ngpu} Then you can change the value as follows:$ ./run.sh --ngpu 2
echo 2

You can also show the help message:

./run.sh --help

## Start from a specified stage and stop at a specified stage¶

The procedures in run.sh can be divided into some stages, e.g. data preparation, training, and evaluation. You can specify the starting stage and the stopping stage.

./run.sh --stage 2 --stop-stage 6

There are also some altenative otpions to skip specified stages:

run.sh --skip_data_prep true  # Skip data preparation stages.
run.sh --skip_train true      # Skip training stages.
run.sh --skip_eval true       # Skip decoding and evaluation stages.

## Change the configuration for training¶

Please keep in mind that run.sh is a wrapper script of several tools including DNN training command. You need to do one of the following two ways to change the training configuration.

# Give a configuration file
./run.sh --asr_config conf/train_asr.yaml
# Give arguments to "espnet2/bin/asr_train.py" directly
./run.sh --asr_args "--foo arg --bar arg2"

e.g. To change learning rate for the LM training

./run.sh --lm_args "--optim_conf lr=0.1"

This is the case of ASR training and you need to replace it accordingly for the other task. e.g. For TTS

./run.sh --tts_args "--optim_conf lr=0.1"

See Change the configuration for training for more detail about the usage of training tools.

## Change the number of parallel jobs¶

./run.sh --nj 10             # Chnage the number of parallels for data preparation stages.
./run.sh --inference_nj 10   # Chnage the number of parallels for inference jobs.

We also support submitting jobs to multiple hosts to accelerate your experiment: See Using Job scheduling system

## Multi GPUs training and distributed training¶

./run.sh --ngpu 4 # 4GPUs in a single node
./run.sh --ngpu 2 --num_nodes 2 # 2GPUs x 2nodes

Note that you need to setup your environment correctly to use distributed training. See the following two:

### Relationship between mini-batch size and number of GPUs¶

The behavior of batch size in ESPnet2 during multi-GPU training is different from that in ESPnet1. In ESPnet2, the total batch size is not changed regardless of the number of GPUs. Therefore, you need to manually increase the batch size if you increase the number of GPUs. Please refer to this doc for more information.

## Use specified experiment directory for evaluation¶

If you already have trained a model, you may wonder how to give it to run.sh when you’ll evaluate it later. By default the directory name is determined according to given options, asr_args, lm_args, or etc. You can overwrite it by --asr_exp and --lm_exp.

# For ASR recipe
./run.sh --skip_data_prep true --skip_train true --asr_exp <your_asr_exp_directory> --lm_exp <your_lm_exp_directory>

# For TTS recipe
./run.sh --skip_data_prep true --skip_train true --tts_exp <your_tts_exp_directory>

## Evaluation without training using pretrained model¶

You need to fill model_name by yourself. You can search for pretrained models on Hugging Face using the tag espnet

## Packing and sharing your trained model¶

ESPnet encourages you to share your results using platforms like Hugging Face or Zenodo (This last will become deprecated.)

For sharing your models, the last three stages of each task simplify this process. The model is packed into a zip file and uploaded to the selected platform (one or both).

For Hugging Face, you need to first create a repository (<my_repo> = <user_name>/<repo_name>).
Remember to install git-lfs before continuing. Then, execute run.sh as follows:

# For ASR recipe
./run.sh --stage 14 --skip-upload-hf false --hf-repo <my_repo>

# For TTS recipe
./run.sh --stage 8 --skip-upload-hf false --hf-repo <my_repo>

For Zenodo, you need to register your account first. Then, execute run.sh as follows:

# For ASR recipe

# For TTS recipe

The packed model can be uploaded to both platforms by setting the previously mentioned flags.

## Usage of Self-Supervised Learning Representations as feature¶

ESPnet supports self-supervised learning representations (SSLR) to replace traditional spectrum features. In some cases, SSLRs can boost the performance.

To use SSLRs in your task, you need to make several modifications.

### Prerequisite¶

1. Install S3PRL by tools/installers/install_s3prl.sh.

2. If HuBERT / Wav2Vec is needed, fairseq should be installed by tools/installers/install_fairseq.sh.

### Usage¶

1. To reduce the time used in collect_stats step, please specify --feats_normalize uttmvn in run.sh and pass it as arguments to asr.sh or other task-specific scripts. (Recommended)

2. In the configuration file, specify the frontend and preencoder. Taking HuBERT as an example: The upstream name can be whatever supported in S3PRL. multilayer-feature=True means the final representation is a weighted-sum of all layers’ hidden states from SSLR model.

frontend: s3prl
frontend_conf:
frontend_conf:
upstream: hubert_large_ll60k  # Note: If the upstream is changed, please change the input_size in the preencoder.
multilayer_feature: True

Here the preencoder is to reduce the input dimension to the encoder, to reduce the memory cost. The input_size depends on the upstream model, while the output_size can be set to any values.

preencoder: linear
preencoder_conf:
input_size: 1024  # Note: If the upstream is changed, please change this value accordingly.
output_size: 80

3. Because the shift sizes of different upstream models are different, e.g. HuBERT and Wav2Vec2.0 have 20ms frameshift. Sometimes, the downsampling rate (input_layer) in the encoder configuration need to be changed. For example, using input_layer: conv2d2 will results in a total frameshift of 40ms, which is enough for some tasks.

## Streaming ASR¶

ESPnet supports streaming Transformer/Conformer ASR with blockwise synchronous beam search.

For more details, please refer to the paper.

### Training¶

To achieve streaming ASR, please employ blockwise Transformer/Conformer encoder in the configuration file. Taking blockwise Transformer as an example: The encoder name can be contextual_block_transformer or contextual_block_conformer.

encoder: contextual_block_transformer
encoder_conf:
block_size: 40         # block size for block processing
hop_size: 16           # hop size for block processing
init_average: true     # whether to use average input as initial context
ctx_pos_enc: true      # whether to use positional encoding for the context vectors

### Decoding¶

To enable online decoding, the argument --use_streaming true should be added to run.sh.

./run.sh --stage 12 --use_streaming true

### FAQ¶

1. Issue about 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'max' during training: Please make sure you employ forward_train function during traininig, check more details here.

2. I successfully trained the model, but encountered the above issue during decoding: You may forget to specify --use_streaming true to select streaming inference.